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The 3 Moon Goddesses of early ARabian History: Al Lat, Al Uzza and Menat

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The 3 Moon Goddesses of the early Arabian History: Al Lat, Al Uzza and Menat based upon petroglyphs found in the Najran Region ( Bir Hima Site / KSA)

Dimensions: 5 1/2 inches x 2 1/2 inches x 2 inches
Weight: 440 grams

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Please note: If so desired I make special items to order if you so wish. Please send me a photo or a design drawing. Contact me via etsy.com message or via Skype : omgtrading or via e-mail: hansoswald [!at] t-online.de and I will make you an offer.

****************************************************************************************************************
Background information on the 3 Moon Goddesses:


The Goddesses Al-Uzza, Al-Lat and Menat formed a triad in pre-Islamic Arabia. They were widely worshipped: from Nabatean Petra in the North to the legendary Kingdoms of Arabia Felix in the South, including Saba, the Biblical Sheba; as far east as Iran and Palmyra; and the three of them were very popular Goddesses in Mecca at the time of Mohammed. From left they are: Al-Uzza, whose name means "The Mighty One", the Goddess of the Morning Star; Al-Lat, the Mother, whose name means simply "The Goddess", as Al-Lah simply means "The God"; and Manat, Crone-goddess of Fate or Time. Sometimes the three of them are referred to as the daughters of Al-Lah; sometimes Manat and Al-Lat are considered daughters of Al-Uzza.
Al-Uzza, "the Strong One", was one of the most venerated Arab Deities, and the Goddess of the morning and evening star, Venus. She had a temple at Petra (though which one that was has not been determined), and may well have been the patron Goddess of that city. Isaac of Antioch (a writer of the 5th century CE) calls Her Beltis ("Lady", a title shared by many other Semitic Goddesses), and Kaukabta, "the Star". He also says that women would invoke Al-Uzza from the rooftops, a form of worship appropriate to a Star Goddess. St. Epiphanius of the 4th century CE calls Her the mother of Dusares, the local mountain God, calling Her by the title Chaamu or Chalmous, meaning "young girl or virgin". She has connections with the acacia tree, and Her sanctuary at Nakhlah had three acacias in which She was believed to descend. She has much in common with Ishtar and Astarte as Morning and Evening Star Goddesses—they all have aspects of both Love and War Goddess, and big cats were sacred to Them. She is shown here armed as a bellatrix, standing before an acacia tree, with a caracal, or desert lynx. She was associated by the Greeks with their Aphrodite Urania, "Heavenly Aphrodite".
Al-Lat, whose name is a contraction of al-Illahat, "the Goddess", is mentioned by Herodotus as Alilat, whom he identifies with Aphrodite. She is sometimes also equated with Athena, and is called "the Mother of the Gods", or "Greatest of All". She is a Goddess of Springtime and Fertility, the Earth-Goddess who brings prosperity. She and Al-Uzza were sometimes confused, and it seems that as one gained in popularity in one area the other's popularity diminished. The sun in Arabia was called Shams and considered feminine, and may represent an aspect of Al-Lat. She had a sanctuary in the town of Ta'if, east of Mecca, and was known from Arabia to Iran. Her symbol is the crescent moon (sometimes shown with the sun disk resting in its crescent), and the gold necklace She wears is from a pendant identified to Her. As a Fertility-Goddess She bears a sheaf of wheat; and in Her hand She holds a small lump of frankincense, as Her emblem is found carved on many incense-holders.
Manat or Manawayat derives Her name from Arabic maniya, "fate, destruction, doom, death", or menata, "part, portion, that which is alloted". She is a very ancient Deity and Her cult may precede both Al-Uzza's and Al-Lat's. Her cult was widespread, though She was particularly worshipped as a black stone at Quidaid, near Mecca. She is connected with the great pilgrimage, as Her sanctuary was the starting point for several tribes. She is known from Nabatean inscriptions, and tombs were placed under Her protection, asking Her to curse violators. She is accordingly a Goddess of Death, and Maniya (Death personified) is mentioned in poetry as actively bringing a person to his or her grave, holding out the cup of death. She is shown as an old woman with a cup, and the symbols at the bottom of Her gown spell Her name in Sabaic (which does not use vowels and is written right to left), M-n-t. The waning moon is shown over Her head as the symbol of the Crone-Goddess of Death.
Al-Lat means simply ‘Goddess,’ the supreme reality in female form. Al-Lat is a mythic figure of great antiquity, one of the trinity of desert Goddesses named in the Koran, Al-Uzza and Menat being the others. Like the GreekDemeter, Al-Lat represented the earth and its fruits; it follows that She also ruled human generation.
Al-Lat was worshiped at Ta’if near Mecca in the form of a great uncut block of white granite, which Her worshipers addressed as ‘My Lady’ or Rusa (‘good fortune’). Women were required to appear before Her naked and circle the sacred rock; if these conditions were met, the Goddess would grant all requests. Solid as the earth She represented, Al-Lat was considered unshakable and immovable. Thus Her people swore their most solemn oaths by Her, with the following words: ‘By the salt, by the fire, and by Al-Lat who is the greatest of all”

Background information on the petroglpyh site in the KSA:

The region around the modern city of Najran, in southwest Saudi Arabia, has much to offer in terms of rock art research. The settlement of Najran was an important center along the Incense Route. Caravans originating at the source in Yemen passed through Najran before turning northward. The western branch was destined for Egypt, the Levant, Greece and Rome, while the eastern branch headed for Mesopotamia. The peak of the incense trade was between 800 BCE-600 CE.
Bi’r Hima, historically known for its famous wells, is located about 30 km northeast of Najran. The labyrinth of wadis and jebels is home to hundreds of examples of petroglyphs, including some large, complex panels compiled of images from multiple periods. Battle scenes with cavalrymen and infantrymen wielding various weapons are most prevalent. Ostriches, domestic cattle, camels, and date palms are also common. Oversized human figures are known at some localities in the Bi’r Hima/Najran region, as well as numerous “Alliah or Al-Lat goddesses” shown adjacent to battle scenes.
The oldest images at Bir Hima consist of large domestic cattle, some of which are decorated with stripes and other geometric designs. The breed depicted is very similar to that shown in Egyptian art, with medium to long lyre-shaped horns that point upward, and a small hump at the shoulders.
Images of domestic fat-tailed sheep can be found in this area, although they are not very common.
The ostriches in the Bi’r Hima rock art are the most lifelike of all those known in Saudi Arabia, with fluffy plumage and realistic postures. These appear to be about as old as the cattle, neither of which is closely associated with contemporaneous writing.
Camels are frequently shown, some with a patina indicating that they are relatively old, perhaps similar to the cattle in age, and others that look much more recent. At Aa’bar Harema, a camel in a late battle scene is shown with a saddle with stirrups or tassels.
The hundreds, if not thousands of petroglyphs in the region are dominated by images of mounted cavalrymen on horses that are highly stylized, but could be of the Arabian breed. The cavalrymen are armed with long lances, swords, saifs (scimitars) and khanjars (curved knives), worn at the waist. Some are also fitted with what appear to be helmets and cuirasses. Dots around the bodies of a few horses may represent equine armour, as well. Camel corpsmen and infantrymen are also shown wielding weapons.
In addition to complex battle scenes, there are hundreds of examples of female images, known locally as Al-Lat goddesses, after the most important pre-Islamic goddess, although there is no proof of a connection. These are normally closely associated with cavalry and infantrymen, but also clearly appear to have served a function in fertility rites. The women are shown facing forward with braids down over their faces and their arms raised in the air, bent at the elbow.
The 3 Moon Goddesses of the early Arabian History: Al Lat, Al Uzza and Menat based upon petroglyphs found in the Najran Region ( Bir Hima Site / KSA)

Dimensions: 5 1/2 inches x 2 1/2 inches x 2 inches
Weight: 440 grams

****************************************************************************************************************
Please note: If so desired I make special items to order if you so wish. Please send me a photo or a design drawing. Contact me via etsy.com message or via Skype : omgtrading or via e-mail: hansoswald [!at] t-online.de and I will make you an offer.

****************************************************************************************************************
Background information on the 3 Moon Goddesses:


The Goddesses Al-Uzza, Al-Lat and Menat formed a triad in pre-Islamic Arabia. They were widely worshipped: from Nabatean Petra in the North to the legendary Kingdoms of Arabia Felix in the South, including Saba, the Biblical Sheba; as far east as Iran and Palmyra; and the three of them were very popular Goddesses in Mecca at the time of Mohammed. From left they are: Al-Uzza, whose name means "The Mighty One", the Goddess of the Morning Star; Al-Lat, the Mother, whose name means simply "The Goddess", as Al-Lah simply means "The God"; and Manat, Crone-goddess of Fate or Time. Sometimes the three of them are referred to as the daughters of Al-Lah; sometimes Manat and Al-Lat are considered daughters of Al-Uzza.
Al-Uzza, "the Strong One", was one of the most venerated Arab Deities, and the Goddess of the morning and evening star, Venus. She had a temple at Petra (though which one that was has not been determined), and may well have been the patron Goddess of that city. Isaac of Antioch (a writer of the 5th century CE) calls Her Beltis ("Lady", a title shared by many other Semitic Goddesses), and Kaukabta, "the Star". He also says that women would invoke Al-Uzza from the rooftops, a form of worship appropriate to a Star Goddess. St. Epiphanius of the 4th century CE calls Her the mother of Dusares, the local mountain God, calling Her by the title Chaamu or Chalmous, meaning "young girl or virgin". She has connections with the acacia tree, and Her sanctuary at Nakhlah had three acacias in which She was believed to descend. She has much in common with Ishtar and Astarte as Morning and Evening Star Goddesses—they all have aspects of both Love and War Goddess, and big cats were sacred to Them. She is shown here armed as a bellatrix, standing before an acacia tree, with a caracal, or desert lynx. She was associated by the Greeks with their Aphrodite Urania, "Heavenly Aphrodite".
Al-Lat, whose name is a contraction of al-Illahat, "the Goddess", is mentioned by Herodotus as Alilat, whom he identifies with Aphrodite. She is sometimes also equated with Athena, and is called "the Mother of the Gods", or "Greatest of All". She is a Goddess of Springtime and Fertility, the Earth-Goddess who brings prosperity. She and Al-Uzza were sometimes confused, and it seems that as one gained in popularity in one area the other's popularity diminished. The sun in Arabia was called Shams and considered feminine, and may represent an aspect of Al-Lat. She had a sanctuary in the town of Ta'if, east of Mecca, and was known from Arabia to Iran. Her symbol is the crescent moon (sometimes shown with the sun disk resting in its crescent), and the gold necklace She wears is from a pendant identified to Her. As a Fertility-Goddess She bears a sheaf of wheat; and in Her hand She holds a small lump of frankincense, as Her emblem is found carved on many incense-holders.
Manat or Manawayat derives Her name from Arabic maniya, "fate, destruction, doom, death", or menata, "part, portion, that which is alloted". She is a very ancient Deity and Her cult may precede both Al-Uzza's and Al-Lat's. Her cult was widespread, though She was particularly worshipped as a black stone at Quidaid, near Mecca. She is connected with the great pilgrimage, as Her sanctuary was the starting point for several tribes. She is known from Nabatean inscriptions, and tombs were placed under Her protection, asking Her to curse violators. She is accordingly a Goddess of Death, and Maniya (Death personified) is mentioned in poetry as actively bringing a person to his or her grave, holding out the cup of death. She is shown as an old woman with a cup, and the symbols at the bottom of Her gown spell Her name in Sabaic (which does not use vowels and is written right to left), M-n-t. The waning moon is shown over Her head as the symbol of the Crone-Goddess of Death.
Al-Lat means simply ‘Goddess,’ the supreme reality in female form. Al-Lat is a mythic figure of great antiquity, one of the trinity of desert Goddesses named in the Koran, Al-Uzza and Menat being the others. Like the GreekDemeter, Al-Lat represented the earth and its fruits; it follows that She also ruled human generation.
Al-Lat was worshiped at Ta’if near Mecca in the form of a great uncut block of white granite, which Her worshipers addressed as ‘My Lady’ or Rusa (‘good fortune’). Women were required to appear before Her naked and circle the sacred rock; if these conditions were met, the Goddess would grant all requests. Solid as the earth She represented, Al-Lat was considered unshakable and immovable. Thus Her people swore their most solemn oaths by Her, with the following words: ‘By the salt, by the fire, and by Al-Lat who is the greatest of all”

Background information on the petroglpyh site in the KSA:

The region around the modern city of Najran, in southwest Saudi Arabia, has much to offer in terms of rock art research. The settlement of Najran was an important center along the Incense Route. Caravans originating at the source in Yemen passed through Najran before turning northward. The western branch was destined for Egypt, the Levant, Greece and Rome, while the eastern branch headed for Mesopotamia. The peak of the incense trade was between 800 BCE-600 CE.
Bi’r Hima, historically known for its famous wells, is located about 30 km northeast of Najran. The labyrinth of wadis and jebels is home to hundreds of examples of petroglyphs, including some large, complex panels compiled of images from multiple periods. Battle scenes with cavalrymen and infantrymen wielding various weapons are most prevalent. Ostriches, domestic cattle, camels, and date palms are also common. Oversized human figures are known at some localities in the Bi’r Hima/Najran region, as well as numerous “Alliah or Al-Lat goddesses” shown adjacent to battle scenes.
The oldest images at Bir Hima consist of large domestic cattle, some of which are decorated with stripes and other geometric designs. The breed depicted is very similar to that shown in Egyptian art, with medium to long lyre-shaped horns that point upward, and a small hump at the shoulders.
Images of domestic fat-tailed sheep can be found in this area, although they are not very common.
The ostriches in the Bi’r Hima rock art are the most lifelike of all those known in Saudi Arabia, with fluffy plumage and realistic postures. These appear to be about as old as the cattle, neither of which is closely associated with contemporaneous writing.
Camels are frequently shown, some with a patina indicating that they are relatively old, perhaps similar to the cattle in age, and others that look much more recent. At Aa’bar Harema, a camel in a late battle scene is shown with a saddle with stirrups or tassels.
The hundreds, if not thousands of petroglyphs in the region are dominated by images of mounted cavalrymen on horses that are highly stylized, but could be of the Arabian breed. The cavalrymen are armed with long lances, swords, saifs (scimitars) and khanjars (curved knives), worn at the waist. Some are also fitted with what appear to be helmets and cuirasses. Dots around the bodies of a few horses may represent equine armour, as well. Camel corpsmen and infantrymen are also shown wielding weapons.
In addition to complex battle scenes, there are hundreds of examples of female images, known locally as Al-Lat goddesses, after the most important pre-Islamic goddess, although there is no proof of a connection. These are normally closely associated with cavalry and infantrymen, but also clearly appear to have served a function in fertility rites. The women are shown facing forward with braids down over their faces and their arms raised in the air, bent at the elbow.

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All items will be shipped via German overland postal service.
If you want express courier service for overseas destinations from Germany via DHL (tracking number included), please contact me at hansoswald@t-online.de for a cost estimate.

We will then send you tracking number for the delivery process. For overseas delivery outside of Europe, shipping charges will be based on destination.

We will discuss the details with you in advance via Etsy or e-mail. All items shipped will be secured up to a maximum value of € 300 = USD 350 roughly.

Packaging:
All canvases will be carefully bubble wrapped and boxed. Sculptures will also be carefully wrapped in bubble wrap and appropriately fitted in boxes.

Shipping address:
Please make sure your Etsy address is correct. If you like it sent to a different address than that of your Etsy-account, please include your corresponding details along with your purchase order. We are not responsible for packages sent to outdated or incorrect addresses.

Shipping times:
All items have already been created. Upon receiving payment, the items will promptly be packaged and shipped within 1-3 days. You will receive a message with your tracking number when your order has been shipped.

Note to international buyers: You are responsible for any customs fees, taxes, etc. incurred.

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The 3 Moon Goddesses of early ARabian History: Al Lat, Al Uzza and Menat

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