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Fighting Shield Warrios - an Anasazi Pictograph from Defiance House in the Forgotten Canyon/San Rafael Swell in Utah

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Fighting Shield Warrios - an Anasazi Pictograph from Defiance House in the Forgotten Canyon/San Rafael Swell in Utah

Measurements : 23 and 1/2 inches x 2 inches x 1 inch
Weight: 180 grams

The Fremont culture or Fremont people is a pre-Columbian archaeological culture which received its name from the Fremont River in the U.S. state of Utah where the first Fremont sites were discovered by local Native Americans known as Utes and Navajo. In the Navajo culture the pictographs are credited to people who lived before the flood. The Fremont River itself is named for John Charles Frémont, an American explorer. It inhabited sites in what is now Utah and parts of Nevada, Idaho and Colorado from AD 1 to 1300 (2,000-700 years ago[1]). It was adjacent to, roughly contemporaneous with, but distinctly different from the Ancestral Pueblo peoples located to their south.

Scholars did not agree that the Fremont culture represents a single, cohesive group with a common language, ancestry, or lifeway, but several aspects of their material culture suggests they might be a single ethnic group. First, Fremont culture people foraged wild food sources and grew corn. The culture participated in a continuum of fairly reliable subsistence strategies that no doubt varied from place to place and time to time. This shows up in the archaeological record at most village sites and long term camps as a collection of butchered, cooked and then discarded bone from mostly deer and rabbits, charred corn cobs with the kernels removed, and wild edible plant remains. Other unifying characteristics include the manufacture of relatively expedient gray ware pottery and a signature style of basketry and rock art. Most of the Fremont lived in small single and extended family units comprising villages ranging from two to a dozen pithouse structures, with only a few having been occupied at any one time. Still, exceptions to this rule exist (partly why the Fremont have earned a reputation for being so hard to define), including an unusually large village in the Parowan Valley of southwestern Utah, the large and extensively excavated village of Five Finger Ridge at the above mentioned Fremont Indian State Park, and others, all appearing to be anomalous in that they were either occupied for a long period of time, were simultaneously occupied by a large number of people, 60 or more at any given moment, or both. The Fremont are sometimes thought to have begun as a splinter group of the Ancestral Pueblo people, although archaeologists do not agree on this theory.

According to archaelogist Dean Snow,

Fremont people generally wore moccasins like their Great Basin ancestors rather than sandals like the Ancestral Puebloans. They were part-time farmers who lived in scattered semi-sedentary farmsteads and small villages, never entirely giving up traditional hunting and gathering for more risky full-time farming. They made pottery, built houses and food storage facilities, and raised corn, but overall they must have looked like poor cousins to the major traditions of the Greater Southwest, while at the same time seeming like aspiring copy-cats to the hunter-gatherers still living around them.[3]

Snow notes that Fremont culture declined due to changing climate conditions c. 950 CE. The culture moved to the then-marshy areas of northwestern Utah, which sustained them for about 400 years.

Two of the most distinguishing characteristics of Fremont culture are their rock art and their pottery. The principal archaeological trait of the Fremont culture is a thin-walled, plain gray pottery. Variations of this pottery have been found at Fremont sites throughout most of Utah, the eastern part of Nevada, and the western edge of Colorado. The Fremont people also produced clay figurines.

The second characteristic of Fremont culture is their rock art, both pictographs (rock paintings) and petroglyphs (rock carvings). Both their rock art and their clay figurines can be grouped into a number of motifs which center on various animals (bighorn sheep are the most common) and plants. One of their characteristic trademarks is human figures with trapezoidal or triangular bodies. These figures frequently have elaborate headdresses and necklaces. They occasionally have shields.

The Parowan branch of Fremont began about 450 CE in southwestern Utah. It is distinguished from other Fremont cultures in that the villages were relatively large (10-20 structures) and were made up of closely spaced pit houses with adobe storage structures. The pit houses were semi-subterranean structures, about 2 feet deep, with a brush superstructure which was covered with plaster. They often had a ventilator shaft to the outside to provide air for the hearth.

About 650 CE, the Uinta branch of the Fremont was established in Utah and Colorado. Sites were located at high elevations, often on ridges or isolated hills above floodplains. The Uinta are unique among the Fremont for not making anthropomorphic figures. At this same time, Fremont people were living in what is now the Dinosaur National Monument. These Fremont people were doing some farming while continuing to rely heavily on hunting and the gathering of wild plants.

About 800 CE, the Uinta branch began to undergo some significant changes. These changes include larger villages with substantial structures of adobe or stone masonry built into shallow circular pits. Villages with up to 20 structures were constructed near large valleys with abundant farmland.

The San Raphael branch of the Fremont culture was established in Utah and Colorado about 700 CE. The villages had both pit houses and above-ground masonry rooms which often contained multiple rooms. The pit houses were often slab-lined. There were often dome-shaped adobe granaries.

One of the outstanding features of the San Raphael branch was the emphasis on anthropomorphic figures in both the rock art and clay figurines. The figures had detailed facial features, necklaces and jewelry, elaborate hairstyles, and skirts. The anatomical detail was sufficient to distinguish between male and female figures.

About 780 CE, the Fremont people moved into the Sevier River area of Utah and Nevada. They lived in small hamlets which were usually situated on an alluvial fan at a canyon mouth near a permanent water supply. In addition to these small farming villages, the Fremont in this area also used temporary camps. These temporary camps-termed resource extraction sites by archaeologists-were used for hunting and gathering wild plants. They show that the Fremont people in this area at this time still relied heavily upon hunting and gathering to supplement their agricultural output.

In Utah, the Fremont people in the Range Creek area began making figurines from unfired gray clay about 1000 CE. These clay figurines were broad-shouldered dolls about six inches tall and shaped like a trapezoid with a head on top. The dolls suggest that the women wore aprons and styled their hair in bobs, while the men wore loincloths. The dolls also suggest that both men and women may have worn face paint.
Fighting Shield Warrios - an Anasazi Pictograph from Defiance House in the Forgotten Canyon/San Rafael Swell in Utah

Measurements : 23 and 1/2 inches x 2 inches x 1 inch
Weight: 180 grams

The Fremont culture or Fremont people is a pre-Columbian archaeological culture which received its name from the Fremont River in the U.S. state of Utah where the first Fremont sites were discovered by local Native Americans known as Utes and Navajo. In the Navajo culture the pictographs are credited to people who lived before the flood. The Fremont River itself is named for John Charles Frémont, an American explorer. It inhabited sites in what is now Utah and parts of Nevada, Idaho and Colorado from AD 1 to 1300 (2,000-700 years ago[1]). It was adjacent to, roughly contemporaneous with, but distinctly different from the Ancestral Pueblo peoples located to their south.

Scholars did not agree that the Fremont culture represents a single, cohesive group with a common language, ancestry, or lifeway, but several aspects of their material culture suggests they might be a single ethnic group. First, Fremont culture people foraged wild food sources and grew corn. The culture participated in a continuum of fairly reliable subsistence strategies that no doubt varied from place to place and time to time. This shows up in the archaeological record at most village sites and long term camps as a collection of butchered, cooked and then discarded bone from mostly deer and rabbits, charred corn cobs with the kernels removed, and wild edible plant remains. Other unifying characteristics include the manufacture of relatively expedient gray ware pottery and a signature style of basketry and rock art. Most of the Fremont lived in small single and extended family units comprising villages ranging from two to a dozen pithouse structures, with only a few having been occupied at any one time. Still, exceptions to this rule exist (partly why the Fremont have earned a reputation for being so hard to define), including an unusually large village in the Parowan Valley of southwestern Utah, the large and extensively excavated village of Five Finger Ridge at the above mentioned Fremont Indian State Park, and others, all appearing to be anomalous in that they were either occupied for a long period of time, were simultaneously occupied by a large number of people, 60 or more at any given moment, or both. The Fremont are sometimes thought to have begun as a splinter group of the Ancestral Pueblo people, although archaeologists do not agree on this theory.

According to archaelogist Dean Snow,

Fremont people generally wore moccasins like their Great Basin ancestors rather than sandals like the Ancestral Puebloans. They were part-time farmers who lived in scattered semi-sedentary farmsteads and small villages, never entirely giving up traditional hunting and gathering for more risky full-time farming. They made pottery, built houses and food storage facilities, and raised corn, but overall they must have looked like poor cousins to the major traditions of the Greater Southwest, while at the same time seeming like aspiring copy-cats to the hunter-gatherers still living around them.[3]

Snow notes that Fremont culture declined due to changing climate conditions c. 950 CE. The culture moved to the then-marshy areas of northwestern Utah, which sustained them for about 400 years.

Two of the most distinguishing characteristics of Fremont culture are their rock art and their pottery. The principal archaeological trait of the Fremont culture is a thin-walled, plain gray pottery. Variations of this pottery have been found at Fremont sites throughout most of Utah, the eastern part of Nevada, and the western edge of Colorado. The Fremont people also produced clay figurines.

The second characteristic of Fremont culture is their rock art, both pictographs (rock paintings) and petroglyphs (rock carvings). Both their rock art and their clay figurines can be grouped into a number of motifs which center on various animals (bighorn sheep are the most common) and plants. One of their characteristic trademarks is human figures with trapezoidal or triangular bodies. These figures frequently have elaborate headdresses and necklaces. They occasionally have shields.

The Parowan branch of Fremont began about 450 CE in southwestern Utah. It is distinguished from other Fremont cultures in that the villages were relatively large (10-20 structures) and were made up of closely spaced pit houses with adobe storage structures. The pit houses were semi-subterranean structures, about 2 feet deep, with a brush superstructure which was covered with plaster. They often had a ventilator shaft to the outside to provide air for the hearth.

About 650 CE, the Uinta branch of the Fremont was established in Utah and Colorado. Sites were located at high elevations, often on ridges or isolated hills above floodplains. The Uinta are unique among the Fremont for not making anthropomorphic figures. At this same time, Fremont people were living in what is now the Dinosaur National Monument. These Fremont people were doing some farming while continuing to rely heavily on hunting and the gathering of wild plants.

About 800 CE, the Uinta branch began to undergo some significant changes. These changes include larger villages with substantial structures of adobe or stone masonry built into shallow circular pits. Villages with up to 20 structures were constructed near large valleys with abundant farmland.

The San Raphael branch of the Fremont culture was established in Utah and Colorado about 700 CE. The villages had both pit houses and above-ground masonry rooms which often contained multiple rooms. The pit houses were often slab-lined. There were often dome-shaped adobe granaries.

One of the outstanding features of the San Raphael branch was the emphasis on anthropomorphic figures in both the rock art and clay figurines. The figures had detailed facial features, necklaces and jewelry, elaborate hairstyles, and skirts. The anatomical detail was sufficient to distinguish between male and female figures.

About 780 CE, the Fremont people moved into the Sevier River area of Utah and Nevada. They lived in small hamlets which were usually situated on an alluvial fan at a canyon mouth near a permanent water supply. In addition to these small farming villages, the Fremont in this area also used temporary camps. These temporary camps-termed resource extraction sites by archaeologists-were used for hunting and gathering wild plants. They show that the Fremont people in this area at this time still relied heavily upon hunting and gathering to supplement their agricultural output.

In Utah, the Fremont people in the Range Creek area began making figurines from unfired gray clay about 1000 CE. These clay figurines were broad-shouldered dolls about six inches tall and shaped like a trapezoid with a head on top. The dolls suggest that the women wore aprons and styled their hair in bobs, while the men wore loincloths. The dolls also suggest that both men and women may have worn face paint.

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All items will be shipped via German overland postal service.
If you want express courier service for overseas destinations from Germany via DHL (tracking number included), please contact me at hansoswald@t-online.de for a cost estimate.

We will then send you tracking number for the delivery process. For overseas delivery outside of Europe, shipping charges will be based on destination.

We will discuss the details with you in advance via Etsy or e-mail. All items shipped will be secured up to a maximum value of € 300 = USD 350 roughly.

Packaging:
All canvases will be carefully bubble wrapped and boxed. Sculptures will also be carefully wrapped in bubble wrap and appropriately fitted in boxes.

Shipping address:
Please make sure your Etsy address is correct. If you like it sent to a different address than that of your Etsy-account, please include your corresponding details along with your purchase order. We are not responsible for packages sent to outdated or incorrect addresses.

Shipping times:
All items have already been created. Upon receiving payment, the items will promptly be packaged and shipped within 1-3 days. You will receive a message with your tracking number when your order has been shipped.

Note to international buyers: You are responsible for any customs fees, taxes, etc. incurred.

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Fighting Shield Warrios - an Anasazi Pictograph from Defiance House in the Forgotten Canyon/San Rafael Swell in Utah

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  • Handmade item
  • Materials: Kieselstein, Klarlack
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